On This Day, Aug. 30, 1965 – Thurgood Marshall Becomes First Black on Supreme Court
1965 – Thurgood Marshall was confirmed by the Senate as a Supreme Court justice. Marshall was the first black justice to sit on the Supreme Court.
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993) was a U.S. Supreme Court justice and civil rights advocate. Marshall earned an important place in American history on the basis of two accomplishments. First, as legal counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), he guided the litigation that destroyed the legal underpinnings of Jim Crow segregation. Second, as an associate justice of the Supreme Court – the nation’s first black justice – he crafted a distinctive jurisprudence marked by uncompromising liberalism, unusual attentiveness to practical considerations beyond the formalities of law, and an indefatigable willingness to dissent.
Marshall was an outspoken liberal on a court dominated by conservatives. In his twenty-four year tenure, he voted to uphold gender and racial affirmative action policies in every case in which they were challenged. He dissented in every case in which the Supreme Court failed to overturn a death sentence and opposed all efforts to narrow or burden the right of women to obtain abortions. No justice has been more libertarian in terms of opposing government regulation of speech or private sexual conduct. Nor has any justice been more egalitarian in terms of advancing a view of the Constitution that imposes positive duties on government to provide certain important benefits to people–education, legal services, access to courts–regardless of their ability to pay for them.
1146 – European leaders outlawed the crossbow.
1645 – American Indians and the Dutch made a peace treaty at New Amsterdam. New Amsterdam later became known as New York.
1682 – William Penn sailed from England and later established the colony of Pennsylvania in America.
1780 – General Benedict Arnold secretly promised to surrender the West Point fort to the British army.
1806 – New York City’s second daily newspaper, the “Daily Advertiser,” was published for the last time.
1809 – Charles Doolittle Walcott first discovered fossils near Burgess Pass. He named the site Burgess Shale after nearby Mt. Burgess.
1862 – The Confederates defeated Union forces at the second Battle of Bull Run in Manassas, VA.
1905 – Ty Cobb made his major league batting debut with the Detroit Tigers.
1928 – The Independence of India League was established in India.
1941 – During World War II, the Nazis severed the last railroad link between Leningrad and the rest of the Soviet Union.
1945 – General Douglas MacArthur set up Allied occupation headquarters in Japan.
1956 – In Louisianna, the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway opened.
1960 – A partial blockade was imposed on West Berlin by East Germany.
1963 – The “Hotline” between Moscow and Washington, DC, went into operation.
1983 – The space shuttle Challenger blasted off with Guion S. Bluford Jr. aboard. He was the first black American to travel in space.
1984 – The space shuttle Discovery lifted off for the first time. On the voyage three communications satellites were deployed.
1984 – President Ronald Reagan, and several others, were inducted into the Sportscasters Hall of Fame.
1991 – The Soviet republic of Azerbaijan declared its independence.
1993 – On CBS-TV “The Late Show with David Letterman” premiered.
1994 – Rosa Parks was robbed and beaten by Joseph Skipper. Parks was known for her refusal to give up her seat on a bus in 1955, which sparked the civil rights movement.
1994 – The largest U.S. defense contractor was created when the Lockheed and Martin Marietta corporations agreed to a merger.
Source: On-This-Day.com; History.com