On This Day, July 27, 1974 – House Judiciary Committee Recommends Nixon Impeachment
1974 – The House Judiciary Committee recommends that America’s 37th president, Richard M. Nixon, be impeached and removed from office. The impeachment proceedings resulted from a series of political scandals involving the Nixon administration that came to be collectively known as Watergate.
The Watergate scandal first came to light following a break-in on June 17, 1972, at the Democratic Party’s national headquarters in the Watergate apartment-hotel complex in Washington, D.C. A group of men linked to the White House were later arrested and charged with the crime. Nixon denied any involvement with the break-in, but several of his staff members were eventually implicated in an illegal cover-up and forced to resign. Subsequent government investigations revealed “dirty tricks” political campaigning by the Committee to Re-Elect the President, along with a White House “enemies list.” In July 1973, one of Nixon’s former staff members revealed the existence of secretly taped conversations between the president and his aides. Nixon initially refused to release the tapes, on grounds of executive privilege and national security, but a judge later ordered the president to turn them over. The White House provided some but not all of the tapes, including one from which a portion of the conversation appeared to have been erased.
In May 1974, the House Judiciary Committee began formal impeachment hearings against Nixon. On July 27 of that year, the first article of impeachment against the president was passed. Two more articles, for abuse of power and contempt of Congress, were approved on July 29 and 30.On August 5, Nixon complied with a U.S. Supreme Court ruling requiring that he provide transcripts of the missing tapes, and the new evidence clearly implicated him in a cover up of the Watergate break-in. On August 8, Nixon announced his resignation, becoming the first president in U.S. history to voluntarily leave office.
Only two other presidents in U.S. history have been impeached: Andrew Johnson in 1868 and Bill Clinton in 1998.
1245 – Frederick II was deposed by a council at Lyons after they found him guilty of sacrilege.
1663 – The British Parliament passed a second Navigation Act, which required all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1694 – The Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.
1775 – Benjamin Rush began his service as the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army.
1784 – “Courier De L’Amerique” became the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. It was printed in Philadelphia, PA.
1777 – The marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious American colonists fight the British.
1778 – The British and French fleets fought to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.
1789 – The Department of Foreign Affairs was established by the U.S. Congress. The agency was later known as the Department of State.
1804 – The 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. With the amendment Electors were directed to vote for a President and for a Vice-President rather than for two choices for President.
1866 – Cyrus Field successfully completed the Atlantic Cable. It was an underwater telegraph from North America to Europe.
1909 – Orville Wright set a record for the longest airplane flight. He was testing the first Army airplane and kept it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds.
1914 – British troops invaded the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and began to disarm Irish rebels.
1918 – The Socony 200 was launched. It was the first concrete barge and was used to carry oil.
1921 – Canadian biochemist Frederick Banting and associates announced the discovery of the hormone insulin.
1944 – U.S. troops completed the liberation of Guam.
1953 – The armistice agreement that ended the Korean War was signed at Panmunjon, Korea.
1955 – The Allied occupation of Austria ended.
1964 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.
1965 – In the U.S., the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act was signed into law. The law required health warnings on all cigarette packages.
1967 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence in the wake of urban rioting.
1968 – The Who’s single “Magic Bus” was released in the U.S.
1984 – Pete Rose passed Ty Cobb’s record for most singles in a career when he got his 3,503rd base hit.
1995 – The Korean War Veterans Memorial was dedicated in Washington, DC, by U.S. President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1999 – The U.S. space shuttle Discovery completed a five-day mission commanded by Air Force Col. Eileen Collins. It was the first shuttle mission to be commanded by a woman.
2003 – It was reported by the BBC (British Broadcasting Corp.) that there was no monster in Loch Ness. The investigation used 600 separate sonar beams and satellite navigation technology to trawl the loch. Reports of sightings of the “Loch Ness Monster” began in the 6th century.
Source: On-This-Day.com; History.com