On This Day, Nov. 8, 1923 – Hitler Launches Failed Beer Hall Putsch

Adolph Seig Heil

1923 – Adolf Hitler made his first attempt at seizing power in Germany with a failed coup in Munich that came to be known as the “Beer-Hall Putsch.”

On November 8–9, 1923, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party led a coalition group in an attempted coup d’état which came to be known as the Beer Hall Putsch. They began at the Bürgerbräu Keller in the Bavarian city of Munich, aiming to seize control of the state government, march on Berlin, and overthrow the German federal government. In its place, they sought to establish a new government to oversee the creation of a unified Greater German Reich where citizenship would be based on race. Although the putsch failed — and Bavarian authorities were able to prosecute nine participants, including Hitler — the leaders ultimately redefined it as a heroic effort to save the nation.

Once they launched the putsch, however, the conspirators made a series of crucial mistakes. First, its overall success depended upon the seizure of state offices and communications centers and the use of the triumvirate’s authority to bring in the military and police. While the rebels temporarily took over some offices, including the municipal headquarters of the Reichswehr and Munich police headquarters, they failed to secure other key centers. As the conspirators had failed to secure communications in the city, the ruling triumvirate was able to call upon suburban police forces and troops from nearby bases.


1656 – Edmond Halley was born. Halley, an astronomer-mathmatician, was the first to calculate the orbit that was named after him. The comet makes an appearance every 76 years.

1793 – The Louvre Museum, in Paris, opened to the public for the first time.

1805 – The “Corps of Discovery” reached the Pacific Ocean. The expedition was led by William Clark and Meriwether Lewis. The journey had begun on May 14, 1804, with the goal of exploring the Louisiana Purchase territory.

1880 – French actress Sarah Bernhardt made her American stage debut in “Adrienne Lecouvreur” in New York City.

1887 – Doc Holliday died at the age of 35. The gun fighting dentist died from tuberculosis in a sanitarium in Glenwood Springs, CO.

1889 – Montana became the 41st state.

1895 – Wilhelm Roentgen while experimenting with electricity discovered the scientific principle involved and took the first X-ray pictures.

1933 – The Civil Works Administration was created by executive order by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The organization was designed to create jobs for more than 4 million unemployed people in the U.S.

1942 – During World War II, Operation Torch began as U.S. and British forces landed in French North Africa.

1956 – After turning down 18,000 names, the Ford Motor Company decided to name their new car the “Edsel,” after Henry Ford’s only son.

1965 – The soap opera “Days of Our Lives” debuted on NBC-TV.

1966 – Edward W. Brooke of Massachusetts became the first African-American elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote.

1966 – Ronald Reagan was elected governor of California.

1979 – The program, “The Iran Crisis: America Held Hostage“, premiered on ABC-TV. The show was planned to be temporary, but it evolved into “Nightline” in March of 1980.

1986 – Vyacheslav M. Molotov died at age 96. During World War II, Molotov ordered the mass production of bottles filled with flammable liquid later called the “Molotov cocktail.”

1990President George H.W. Bush ordered more troop deployments in the Persian Gulf, adding about 150,000 soldiers to the multi-national force fighting against Iraq.

1997 – Chinese engineers diverted the Yangtze River to make way for the Three Gorges Dam.

2000 – Waco special counsel John C. Danforth released his final report that absolved the government of wrongdoing in the 1993 seige of the Branch Davidian compound in Texas.

 

Source: On-This-Day.com; ushmm.org