On This Day, Nov. 9, 1938 – Jews Face ‘Night of Broken Glass’

1389.8 Holocaust C

1938 – Nazi troops and sympathizers destroyed and looted 7,500 Jewish businesses, burned 267 synagogues, killed 91 Jews, and rounded up over 25,000 Jewish men in an event that became known as Kristallnacht or “Night of Broken Glass.”

The pretext for the pogroms was the shooting in Paris on November 7 of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by a Polish-Jewish student, Herschel Grynszpan. News of Rath’s death on November 9 reached Adolf Hitler in Munich, Germany, where he was celebrating the anniversary of the abortive 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. There, Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, after conferring with Hitler, harangued a gathering of old storm troopers, urging violent reprisals staged to appear as “spontaneous demonstrations.” Telephone orders from Munich triggered pogroms throughout Germany, which then included Austria.

Just before midnight on November 9, Gestapo chief Heinrich Müller sent a telegram to all police units informing them that “in shortest order, actions against Jews and especially their synagogues will take place in all of Germany. These are not to be interfered with.” Rather, the police were to arrest the victims. Fire companies stood by synagogues in flames with explicit instructions to let the buildings burn. They were to intervene only if a fire threatened adjacent “Aryan” properties.


1872 – A fire destroyed about 800 buildings in Boston, MA.

1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt left for Panama to see the progress on the new canal. It was the first foreign trip by a U.S. president.

1911 – George Claude of Paris, France, applied for a patent on neon advertising signs.

1918 – Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II announced he would abdicate. He then fled to the Netherlands.

1935 – United Mine Workers president John L. Lewis and other labor leaders formed the Committee for Industrial Organization.

1953 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld a 1922 ruling that major league baseball did not come within the scope of federal antitrust laws.

1961 – Major Robert White flew an X-15 rocket plane at a world record speed of 4,093 mph.

1961 – The Professional Golfer’s Association (PGA) eliminated its “Caucasians only” rule.

1963 – In Japan, about 450 miners were killed in a coal-dust explosion.

1965 – The great Northeast blackout occurred as several states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours.

1967 – A Saturn V rocket carrying an unmanned Apollo spacecraft blasted off from Cape Kennedy on a successful test flight.

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1967 – The first issue of Rolling Stone was published in San Francisco. John Lennon was on the cover.

1976 – The U.N. General Assembly approved ten resolutions condemning the apartheid government in South Africa.

1984 – A bronze statue titled “Three Servicemen,” by Frederick Hart, was unveiled at the site of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC.

1989 – Communist East Germany opened its borders, allowing its citizens to travel freely to West Germany.

1997 – Barry Sanders (Detroit Lions) became the first player in NFL history to rush for over 1,000 yards in nine straight seasons. In the same game Sanders passed former Dallas Cowboy Tony Dorsett for third place on the all-time rushing list.

2004 – U.S. First Lady Laura Bush officially reopened Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House to pedestrians.

 

Source: Britanica.com; On-This-Day.com