On This Day, Sept. 10, 1963 – Alabama Standoff Ends as Blacks Enter School

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1963 – Twenty black students entered public schools in Alabama at the end of a standoff between federal authorities and Alabama governor George C. Wallace.

On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down its decision regarding the case called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in which the plaintiffs charged that the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education meant that the University of Alabama had to be desegregated. In the years following, hundreds of African-Americans applied for admission, but all were denied. The University worked with police to find any disqualifying qualities, or when this failed, intimidated the applicants. But in 1963, three African-Americans with perfect qualifications — Vivian Malone Jones, Dave McGlathery and James Hood—applied, refusing to be intimidated. In early June a federal district judge ordered that they be admittedand forbade Gov. George C. Wallace from interfering.

On June 11, Malone and Hood arrived to register. Wallace, attempting to uphold his promise of inaugural promise of “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever”as well as for political show, blocked the entrance to Foster Auditorium with the media watching. Then, flanked by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach told Wallace to step aside. However, Wallace cut Katzenbach off and refused, giving a speech on States’ rights.Katzenbach called President John F. Kennedy, who federalized the Alabama National Guard. Gen. Henry Graham then commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, “Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States.” Wallace then spoke further, but eventually moved, and Malone and Hood registered as students.


1608 – John Smith was elected president of the Jamestown, VA colony council.

1794 – America’s first non-denominational college was charted. Blount College later became the University of Tennessee.

1813 – The first defeat of British naval squadron occurred in the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. The leader of the U.S. fleet sent the famous message “We have met the enemy, and they are ours” to Gen. William Henry Harrison.

1845 – King Willem II opened Amsterdam Stock exchange.

1846 – Elias Howe received a patent for his sewing machine.

Rabbi-Jacob-Frankel1862 – Rabbi Jacob Frankel became the first Jewish Army chaplain.

Rabbi Jacob Frankel (1808-1887), a cantor at Philadelphia’s Rodeph Shalom Synagogue, was the first authorized Jewish chaplain in the United States Army. Commissioned by President Lincoln on Sept. 18 1862.

Frankel served as a hospital chaplain, ministering to Jewish soldiers in the Philadelphia area. It is reported that many of the men he served grew quite close to Frankel and attended his synagogue on leave or after their discharge to hear him chant from his pulpit. The hospital chaplaincy was a part-time activity for Frankel who continued his work as cantor of Rodeph Shalom during the Civil War.

1899 – A second quake in seven days hit Yakutat Bay, AK. It measured 8.6.

1913 – The Lincoln Highway opened. It was the first paved coast-to-coast highway in the U.S.

1919 – New York City welcomed home 25,000 soldiers and General John J. Pershing who had served in the First Division during World War I.

1919 – Austria and the Allies signed the Treaty of St.-Germain-en-Laye. Austria recognized the independence of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

1921 – The Ayus Autobahn in Germany opened near Berlin. The road is known for its nonexistent speed limit.

1923 – The Irish Free state joined the League of Nations.

1926 – Germany joined the League of Nations.

1939 – Canada declared war on Germany.

1948 – Mildred “Axis Sally” Gillars was indicted for treason in Washington, DC. Gillars was a Nazi radio propagandist during World War II. She was convicted and spent 12 years in prison.

1953 – Swanson began selling its first “TV dinner.”

1955 – “Gunsmoke” premiered on CBS.

1955 – Bert Parks began a 25-year career as host of the “Miss America Pageant” on NBC.

1974 – Lou Brock (St. Louis Cardinals) set a new MLB record when he stole his 105th base of the season.

1979 – President Jimmy Carter granted clemency to four Puerto Rican nationalists who had been imprisoned for an attack on the House of Representatives in 1954 and an attempted assassination of President Harry Truman in 1950.

1989 – Hungary gave permission to thousands of East German refugees and visitors to immigrate to West Germany.

1990 – Iran agreed to resume full diplomatic ties with past enemy Iraq.

1990 – Iraq’s Saddam Hussein offered free oil to developing nations in an attempt to win their support during the Gulf War Crisis.

1992 – In Minneapolis, MN, a federal jury struck down professional football’s limited free agency system.

2002 – Florida tested its new elections system. The test resulted in polling stations opening late and problems occurred with the touch screen voting machines.

 

Source: On-This-Day.com; americanjewisharchives.org

 

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