On This Day, Sept. 9, 1957 – Eisenhower Signs New Civil Rights Law

Ike civil rights

1957 – The first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction was signed into law by President Dwight Eisenhower.

The act initiated a greater federal role in protecting the rights of African Americans and other minorities. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 did not create new rights, but it increased protection of voting rights and laid the foundation for federal enforcement of civil rights law by creating the Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice, a Civil Rights Commission within the executive branch, and expanding federal enforcement authority to include civil lawsuits.

Although many of the more violent forms of racial oppression had been reduced by the 1950s, in the South state law was often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their civil rights. To register to vote, for example, many states required that applicants take a voter qualification test. The questions on the test were designed so registrars could disqualify most of the African Americans attempting to register.

Renewed federal efforts to enforce the criminal provisions of civil rights laws began in 1939. That year a civil rights section was created within the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice

The bill that became the 1957 act was introduced in Congress during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Attorney General Herbert Brownell played a large role in shaping the bill. It was very similar to a 1956 bill, which was not enacted because of the resistance of Southern senators.

490 B.C. – The Battle of Marathon took place between the invading Persian army and the Athenian Army. The marathon race was derived from the events that occurred surrounding this battle.

1776 – The second Continental Congress officially made the term “United States“, replacing the previous term “United Colonies.”

1836Abraham Lincoln received his license to practice law.

1850California became the 31st state to join the union.

1898 – In Omaha, NE, Tommy Fleming of Eau Claire, WI won the first logrolling championship.

1893President Grover Cleveland‘s wife, Frances Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther. It was the first time a president’s child was born in the White House.

1904 – Mounted police were used for the first time in the City of New York.

1911 – Italy declared war on the Ottoman Turks and annexed Libya, Tripolitania, and Cyrenaica in North Africa.

1919 – The majority of Boston’s police force went on strike. The force was made up of 1,500 men.

1919 – Alexander Graham Bell and Casey Baldwin’s HD-4, a hydrofoil craft, set a world marine speed record.

1926 – The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) was created by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).

1950 – Sal Maglie (New York Giants) pitched a fourth consecutive shutout. Only four other pitchers in the National League had ever accomplished this feat.

1956 – Elvis Presley made his first appearance on the Ed Sullivan show “Toast of the Town.” He was shot from just the waist up during the performance. Elvis would make a total of three appearances on the show.

1965 – French President Charles de Gaulle announced that France was withdrawing from NATO to protest the domination of the U.S. in the organization.

1965 – Sandy Koufax of the Los Angeles Dodgers pitched the eighth perfect game in major league baseball history.

1971 – Gordie Howe of the Detroit Red Wings retired from the National Hockey League.

1981 – Nicaragua declared a state of economic emergency and banned strikes.

1983 – The Soviet Union announced that the Korean jetliner the was shot down on September 1, 1983 was not an accident or an error.

1984 – Walter Payton of the Chicago Bears broke Jim Brown’s combined yardage record when he reached 15,517 yards.

1986 – Frank Reed was taken hostage in Lebanon by pro-Iranian kidnappers. The director of a private school in Lebanon was released 44 months later.

1986 – Ted Turner presented the first of his colorized films on WTBS in Atlanta.

1986 – Gennadiy Zakharov was indicted by a New York jury on espionage charges. Zakharov was a Soviet United Nations employee.

1993 – Israeli and PLO leaders agreed to recognize each other.

1994 – The U.S. agreed to accept about 20,000 Cuban immigrants a year. This was in return for Cuba’s promise to halt the flight of refugees.

1994 – The space shuttle Discovery blasted off on an 11-day mission.

1995 – Amtrak’s Broadway Limited service made its final run between New York City and Chicago.

1997 – Sinn Fein, the IRA’s political ally, formally renounced violence as it took its place in talks on Northern Ireland’s future.

1998 – Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr delivered to Congress 36 boxes of material concerning his investigation of President William Clinton.


Source: Encyclopedia.com;On-this-Day.com.